In medicine, pathology is the study and diagnosis of diseases through body fluid and tissue. There are two branches of veterinary pathology, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. There is a lot of research involved in this field of medicine, and many medicinal discoveries have been made in this field. This is also important in veterinary sciences because it helps to study and prevent animal diseases in the future.
Anatomical pathology diagnoses diseases by using studying methods like gross examination, microscopic and molecular examination of tissues, organs and sometimes necropsy, which is studying the entire body of the animal. Gross examination also known as grossing, is when a veterinarian uses their normal eyesight to study and inspect an animal to discover problems and diagnosis. Microscopic, or more scientifically histopathology, is viewing tissue through microscopic means. This can mean looking at samples through a microscope, or through scans and examinations like biopsies. Molecular examination is looking and studying all the way down to the molecular level. This is a common procedure when diagnosing cancer and other infectious diseases. Some techniques used in molecular examination are quantitative polymerase chain reaction, multiplex PCR, situ hybridization, antibody based immunofluorescence tissue assays, DNA sequencing, DNA microarray, analysis for antimicrobial resistance using bacterial genes, and molecular profiling pathogens.
Clinical pathology diagnoses diseases by using analysis of blood, tissue, urine, cavitary effusions and other bodily fluids. The analysis process involves studying these samples through different scientific means like clinical chemistry, hematology, molecular pathology and microbiology. Clinical chemistry or chemical pathology, studies bodily fluids through biochemical tests, in order to diagnose problems and can also be used for therapy treatments. This is a different field from medicinal chemistry. Hematology studies blood in order to find out the source of the disease. This includes but is not limited to blood cells, hemoglobin, bone marrow, blood vessels, platelets, spleen, and blood proteins. Molecular pathology deals with the study of the disease by examining tissue and other bodily fluids at the molecular level. Microbiology studies microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) in order to find the source and means of diseases. Also this area deals with the medicinal application for microbes in the treatment process and healthcare.
Both types of Veterinary pathology are important to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in animals. Without these two fields, progress and study would not be made for the future of veterinary pathology and the future prevention of animal diseases.